There is no agreed definition of the word secularisation- depending on how you define it will determine whether or not it is happening/exists. Some will argue that; secularisation is happening, it never happened, it did happen, or it’s a western issue. The exclusivist definition sees religion as involving beliefs in some supernatural, supra-human being or forces of some kind, which would indicate that secularisation is apparent in modern society as church attendance has declined in the UK from 11.1% of the population in the 1980s, to 6.6% in 2005. The inclusivist definition takes a less traditional approach, and includes beliefs and activities that most wouldn’t define as religious e.g. New Age Movements that look at spiritual therapies; this suggests secularisation isn’t happening and that religion is never likely to decline as alternative activities replace traditional roles of religion. If secularisation is defined as the exclusivist definition, then the UK can be classes as experiencing secularisation.
Different sociologists have different theories contributing to our understanding of secularisation, for example Webers rationalisation theory. However, opponents of the secularisation debate argue that secularisation is only apparent in modern European societies, as church attendance and religious participation is in the increase in countries like America. Firstly evidence supporting the view of secularisation is only in modern European societies includes the decline of religious participation. In the UK, not only has church attendance decreased in recent years; church marriages, funerals and other religious ceremonies have dropped in attendance, as well as an increase in divorce rates and premarital children (50% of all parents) which suggests a decline in moral beliefs.
Bruce suggests that the growth in scientific explanations and the application of technology in modern society has undermined the traditional religious beliefs. However, this decline in religious participation does not apply to the whole of the world. According to the 2004 Home Office Citizenship survey, minority ethnic groups are generally more religious than Whites, as they rank religion as second or third most important indicator of identity- compared to White British who ranked it 10th. Bellah goes against the view that secularisation is only a western European problem and argues that those who attend church in other countries might not be going for religious reasons e.g to get into certain schools- which Davie refers to as ‘belonging without believing’.
Wilson agrees that secularisation is taking place, and argues that churches of modern European societies has recently become disengaged; churches no longer plays a part in important aspects of social life e.g. education, health care, morality or politics, and therefore no longer has influence over the new generation. However in many countries religion still plays a big part in society, as many countries base their culture on religion and many cultural events are still based on traditional religion- this supports the view that secularisation is only a feature of modern European societies. Although, others argue that the decrease in traditional religion influence is not evidence for secularisation, as in modern society religion has resacularised; people are turning from traditional beliefs into spiritual.
For example the increase in diversity of New Age Religions e.g. yoga and meditation have an increasing participation rate. Postmodernists argue that religion is not declining its just being reorientated, which gives individuals a chance to pick n mix aspects of society to suit them. Wilsons theory of disengagement of churches could also be criticised as many churches still have connections to modern day society, for example many charities are linked with the church, the Queen is the head of state, and there are 26 Bishops in the house of Lords. This means that secularisation is not actually a feature of modern European society as it is misinterpreted due to the recent change in focus of religion which is moving away from traditional beliefs and taking on spiritual values. Weber believes that the increasing rationalisation of the world has drained the magic and mystery out of religious ways of thinking.
Science has provided the basis for the advance in technology that gives humans the power to control nature and undermine the religious worldview that events can be explained by using the will of God. Humans therefore have lost the ability to experience a sense of sacredness and mystery in life. This disenchantment cannot apply in undeveloped, 3rd world countries as this scientific belief and advance in technology hasn’t reached there, and many countries manage to combine science and religion. Religion in places of suffering is still justified by these societies as being a ‘plan’ made by God, and therefore religion acts as a glimpse of hope. Therefore secularisation is only a feature of modern society, especially in developed counties like European societies.
A growth in fundamentalism has returned in many countries, where pockets of the world take religious very seriously and take the literal meaning of religious texts and associated behaviour- so secularisation is a feature of only European societies. Although some would argue that this is only reinserted due to strong socialisation into being very religious (especially through family and education), so being religion is a cultural influence rather than a personal choice/belief. Some sociologists argue that religion has undergone Disneyfication; Lyon suggests post modern society has trivialised religion in order to appeal to the modern society by promoting fun and amusement. In order for religion to survive in the modern European societies, it has to market itself (like a spiritual supermarket).
However this does not necessarily count as secularisation, as others argue that this marketing of religion gives a wider choice of religion which technically creates more religion- post modernists argue that disneyfication enhances religion. However, religious pluralism sees power in society spread among a wide variety of interest groups and individuals, which no single one having a monopoly of truth. People in modern society have a huge choice of religion- and can be a part of more than one religious institution. This means it is very hard to measure participation due to the vast amount of religions and therefore secularisation has been misjudged in modern European society. Marxists and Feminists would go against this view as they believe religion is still playing its role in creating conflict between different social classes, and therefore secularisation cannot be taking place.
To conclude, the view that secularisation has been a feature of modern European societies is debated by many sociologists, and these theories and contributions are useful in explaining why some countries are experiencing secularisation more than others. It recognises current issues like disenchantment, disneyfication and the new insights of scientific explanations. However it is heavily criticised by other sociologists for ignoring important aspects of society, like religious pluralism and many studies are outdated so no longer apply tp modern societies. Feminists would argue that religion still plays its role in exploiting women, and Functionalists believe religion is still acting as social glue. Postmodernists also disagree and believe that religion is more diverse in modern society so individuals can have more choice in what they believe.
1. What Do Secular, Secularisation, and Secularisation Theory Mean?
“...the ongoing, growing, and powerful movement called secularism, a way of understanding and living that is indifferent to religion -- in fact, not even concerned enough to pay it any attention, much less oppose it.”
National Council of Churches1
Secular means without religion. Non-religious people lead secular lives. Secular government runs along rational and humanistic lines. This is the norm in democratic countries. The individuals that make up the government are rightly free to have whatever religion they want, as are the populace. Because of this freedom, in a multicultural world, there is a requirement for governments not to cause resentment or divisions by identifying itself with a particular religion. The most well-known phrase proposing secular democracy as an ideal is Jefferson's "wall of separation between church and state" [paraphrased].
Secularism, promoted by secularists, is the belief that religion should be a private, personal, voluntary affair that does not impose upon other people. Public spaces and officialdom should therefore be religion-neutral. Secularism ensures that religions are treated fairly and that no bias exists for a particular religion, and also that non-religious folk such as Humanists are treated with equal respect. It is the only democratic way to proceed in a globalized world where populations are free to choose their own, varied, religions. ⇒ See Secularism.
Secularisation is the process of things becoming more secular. Most of the Western world has seen this paradigm come to dominate politics and civil life, starting from the time of the Enlightenment. For example in 1864 the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) published a document as a hostile response to fledging secularisation, as growing tolerance for other religions and the growing power of democracy was challenging the RCC's power to implement its doctrine in the countries of Europe2. Thus as the world develops morally and tolerance and public equality come to the fore, religion, because it causes issues, retreats from the public sphere as people prefer to meet on neutral terms, in peace.
Secularisation Theory is the theory in sociology that as society advances in modernity, religion retreats and becomes increasingly hollow. The theory holds that intellectual and scientific developments have undermined the spiritual, supernatural, superstitious and paranormal ideas on which religion relies for its legitimacy, and, the differentiation of modern life into different compartments (i.e. work, politics, society, education and knowledge, home-time, entertainment) have relegated religion to merely one part of life, rather than an all-pervading narrative. As this continues, religion becomes more and more shallow, surviving for a while on empty until loss of active membership forces it into obscurity - although most theorists only hold this happens for organized public religion, not for private spirituality. ⇒ See: Definitions of Secularisation Theory: Why is Religion Declining?
The evidences and shortcomings of this theory are discussed later in this text.
Some take the process of secularisation as a personal affront, and think that mere lack of bias from government implies an active attack. They see any reduction in (their own) public religion to be bad, and apparently they do not understand the causes or reasons behind the secularisation of officialdom. Hopefully this page will address this.
2. Which are the Least Religious Countries?3
“Atheists (those who do not believe in any god), and humanists (those who embrace a morality that does not appeal to any supernatural source), and others who consider themselves non-religious, are a large and growing population across the world. A detailed survey in 2012 revealed that religious people make up 59% of the world population, while those who identify as "atheist" make up 13%, and an additional 23% identify as "not religious" (while not self-identifying as "atheist"). The report by the Gallup International Association (available at http://www.wingia.com/web/files/news/14/file/14.pdf) is in line with other recent global surveys. It shows that atheism and the non religious population are growing rapidly - religion dropped by 9% and atheism rose by 3% between 2005 and 2012 - and that religion declines in proportion to the rise in education and personal income, which is a trend that looks set to continue.”
"Freedom of Thought" by IHEU (2012)6
2.1. Religion in Europe
Over the last 60 years, religion in Europe has seen a strong decline. On average throughout the 27 EU countries, only half of its people believe in God7 and 25.4% directly say that they have no religion8. There is much variation from country to country. Only 16% of the populace of Estonia believe in God and the Scandinavian countries are highly atheist. But 95% believe in Malta. Two main social groups are particularly prone to belief in God; those over 55 years old and those whose education did not proceed beyond the 15-year-old stage.7. For a discussion on secularisation in general, see: "Secularisation Theory: Will Modern Society Reject Religion? What is Secularism?" by Vexen Crabtree
Despite the low rate of belief in God, many Europeans still claim to belong to theistic religions. 49.5% of the population of Europe say they are Catholic Christian, 15.7% say they're Muslim, 12.7% say they're Protestant Christian, 8.6% say they're Orthodox Christian and 0.4% say they are Jewish8. These numbers mean that at least 30% of Europeans are putting down a religion despite not believing in the very basic first principal of the religion they put down. In some places, this percent is higher. In France only 52% of Catholic believe in God and "only 18 percent define God according to the teachings of the Catholic Church"9. This is all because most people in Europe confuse religion and cultural heritage, and for many the actual beliefs of a religion don't really matter. For a discussion of this, see: "Institutionalized Religions Have Their Numbers Inflated by National Polls" by Vexen Crabtree.
See:Religion in Europe.
2.2. Secularisation in the non-Western World
Some scholars say secularisation is a typically Western phenomenon10, with the implication being that it will not occur elsewhere. More discerning folk say that secularisation is limited to Protestant countries where individual choices came to be viewed as more important than communal worship. They make Europe out to be an "exceptional case"; however, there is growing evidence of secularisation in most parts of the world, and some countries such as Japan are even less religious that some European countries. In his survey of the research done into clergy and other castes of religious professionals, sociologist Dean R. Hoge reports that in Western nations in general (not just in Europe) the status of Christian clergy has been declining for 300 years both amongst Protestants and Catholics, as religious professionals are suffering from a gradual loss of perceived authority11. Hoge also notes that across Asia, Buddhist priests are also losing their authority12.
South America: Although it is easy to assume, if you will, that some of the areas where religion is rapidly expanding are areas where secularisation theory is being challenged, there are hints that suggest otherwise. The ballooning success of evangelical Protestantism in South America is one such area; Pentecostalism has had a massive and rapid success there. Yet sociologists, in conducting systematic surveys, have found that beneath the surface the increase in religiosity is unstable. A 1989 survey in Costa Rica found that 8.1% of the population who had once been Protestant had now moved on: 31% of them had stopped professing religion at all. And "in 1990, in Chile, only 48 per cent of a sample of self-identified Evangelicals (predominantly Pentecostals) attended church weekly and 38 per cent very seldom or never attended"13.
India: Signs of early secularization amongst India's Hindus includes the growth of informal 'do it yourself' omnipraxy and that religious icons are being produced increasingly unreligiously, whereas previous their production involved personal and ritualistic involvement14. Secularism and materialism are here seen hand in hand.
Japan is the example given by Steve Bruce (1996) as the prime non-Western country that is deep in the throes of secularisation15.
In the Islamic world, some scholars sometimes detect signs of secularisation even from within communities where any such thing is illegal to a deadly degree. In Morocco and Indonesia the studies of sociologist Clifford Geertz (in the 1960s) led him to declare that people are finding it harder and harder to employ religious symbols as representing "the deepest grain of reality"16. Richard Fenn comments that "Clearly Geertz fears that Indonesia shares the fate of a Western Christianity emptied of its monopoly of the sacred and he shows that religion in Indonesia is moving in the same direction"17. In many Islamic countries, politics is now the reserve of politicians rather than of religious councils18, although it appears to make little difference to the dominance of fundamentalist Islam in nearly every Islamic country. Places like Indonesia have, since those comments were made in the 1960s, fallen continually deeper into strict and violent Islamism.
3. The Defiers of Secularisation
The world is not secularising evenly. Academics can be found asking "is the situation best captured by secularization theory, or by the notion of resurgence of spirituality? By the decline in traditional religiosity, or by the upsurge of fundamentalism?"19. Some of the exceptions to secularisation (even in the developed world) are pronounced enough to count as evidence against Secularisation Theory. Sociologist of religion Rodney Stark condemns secularisation theory "to the graveyard of failed theories"20. Others (erroneously) believe it is only a European phenomenon21. We will respond to these arguments below, for example Steve Bruce points out Japan as an example of a non-Christian, non-European country that has also secularized extensively.
The USA still has a very high religiosity rate, as high as third-world countries, and is, with the possible exception of parts of Scandinavia the most advanced country in the world. So this is a serious exception that needs explaining. Most explanations have concentrated on the high level of immigration, something which tends to harden people's religions. See: Political Power Struggles and Identity Reinforcement: Why are People Religious?
The developing world is highly religious; there are countries and cultures that can hardly imagine what life without religion is like. Critics imagine that these countries will not lose their religious beliefs as they develop higher rates of education and technological development.
Sections of society within secular countries remain highly religious. The middle-ground believers are now swayed into areligiosity by the same inertia that used to lead them into religion. Now these are largely gone, what is left behind are the hardcore believers, who are both more vocal, more educated and more activist about their beliefs. These fanatical groups show no signs of dissipation. A report in The Economist (2007) reads: "It is the tougher versions of religion that are doing best - the sort that claim Adam and Eve met 6,003 years ago. Some of the new converts are from the ranks of the underprivileged (Pentecostalism has spread rapidly in the fevelas of Brazil), but many are not. American evangelicals tend to be well-educated and well-off"22.
The growth of New Religious Movements in secularized countries makes some doubt the depth of secularisation23. However, the numbers involved in NRMs are small in comparison to the numbers lost by world religions in the developed world, and their middling increase in numbers is simply part of the decentralisation process of religions24. It is just that the NRMs are often newsworthy, hence, have a higher profile.25
Some Muslim countries are modernizing without secularizing. In contrast, some of these states are seeing dwindling minority religions and increasing power of Islamic institutions26. Yet, the type of science accepted is often engineering and branches of science that lack teleological and theological implications. Evolution is, for example, still comprehensively rejected in all gulf states27. So we are not seeing a true adoption of modernism in these countries, just an uptake of pragmatism.
"Formerly communist countries are also getting hooked again on the opium of the people. Russia's secret police, the KGB, hounded religion: its successor, the FSB, has its own Orthodox church opposite its headquarters"22. Communism was once a heavy factor in the de-religionizing of large areas of the world.
In India an upsurge of Hindu nationalism is said by some to be presaging a trend against secularisation28, although others see this as further diminishing the value of religion in the minds of the general populace.
4. Secularisation Theory
Academics have noted that weekly attendance of religious events (going to Church, etc), as well as the opinion that religion is 'very important', are both at their highest in agrarian communities, and at their lowest in developed post-industrial societies29. My page Religion in the United Kingdom: Diversity, Trends and Decline page show examples and charts of what this long-term secularisation looks like, in terms of memberships, attendance and beliefs, etc.
“The three 'classical' sociological theorists, Marx, Durkheim and Weber [all] thought that the significance of religion would decrease in modern times. Each believed that religion is in a fundamental sense an illusion. The advocates of different faiths may be wholly persuaded of the validity of the beliefs they hold and the rituals in which they participate, yet the very diversity of religions and their obvious connections to different types of society, the three thinkers held, make these claims inherently implausible.”
"Sociology" by Anthony Giddens (1997)30
“There is a notion in the air about us that religion is probably only an anachronism, a case of "survival," an atavistic relapse into a mode of thought which humanity in its more enlightened examples has outgrown; and this notion our religious anthropologists at present do little to counteract. This view is so widespread at the present day that I must consider it with some explicitness before I pass to my own conclusions.”
"The Varieties of Religious Experience" by William James (1902) [Book Review]31
Moojan Momen (1999) says there are five ways of looking at secularisation:
"Decline of popular involvement in institutionalized religion. This can be seen in the decline in church attendance, with fewer marriages, baptisms and funerals being performed under religious auspices."
"The loss of prestige of religious institutions and symbols" and the decline in influence of religious organisations.
"The separation of society from the religious world, so that religion becomes purely personal matter."
The loss of the idea of the sacred. "As science increases our understanding of humanity and of the world, the area of 'mystery' and the supernatural decrease."
"Religious groups themselves become increasingly concerned with the things of this world rather than the spiritual world."
Point one is comprehensively illustrated on my page on statistics of religion in Britain. Point five is clearly illustrated by the reaction of modern religionists to secular advance: fundamentalists are much more engaged in the processes of politics than any other religious group in the West. Momen also notes that in Europe, secularisation came to the fore in the nineteenth century:
“Secularization has gradually permeated the Christian world. It led to the situation in which, by the nineteenth century, Christianity had ceased to have much real influence on the social and political life of Europe. The form was maintained, in that political leaders usually made a great show attending religious ceremonies and were often personally pious. Religion no longer had a role, however, in the shaping of political and social policy. Other considerations and other secular ideologies had taken over. Following the loss of social and political influence, religion became increasingly irrelevant to the lives of ordinary people also.”
"The Phenomenon Of Religion: A Thematic Approach" by Moojan Momen (1999) [Book Review]32
Another sociologist of religion, in his survey of new religious movements, reported similar findings in modern countries and gives a partial explanation as to why this is occurring:
“Looking back over the past couple of centuries it would seem to be overwhelmingly evident that religious beliefs, practices and symbols are gradually being abandoned at all levels of modern society. [...] Central to this apparent decline of religion is religious pluralism. Communities in which people shared the same religious beliefs and morality [...] are rapidly disappearing. [...] In modern societies there are few shared values to which one can appeal. Believers are constantly aware that their faith is chosen from a spectrum of beliefs on offer. Consequently, beliefs that were once taken for granted as exclusively and absolutely true seem increasingly implausible.”
"Encyclopedia of New Religions" by Christopher Partridge (2004)33
4.2. The Causes of Secularisation
It would be ideal if definitions of Secularisation Theory mentioned the key forces that drive the social changes that lead to declines in religion. "Anti-Religious Forces: Specific Factors Fuelling Secularisation" by Vexen Crabtree (2011) is my comprehensive analysis of the historical and modern forces at work behind secularisation. Its menu is:
4.3. The Dalai Lama Defends Secularism as a Way to Respect All Religion
The Dalai Lama proved himself to have a good understanding of what secularism is when he defended it, in 2006, as a route to respect all religions through its doctrines of non-interference and non-promotion of any particular religions:
“DALAI LAMA SAYS SECULARISM IS THE TRUE ROUTE TO HAPPINESS
The Dalai Lama has come out in defence of secularism. Speaking in Tokyo, the Tibetan spiritual figurehead said: "Secularism does not mean rejection of all religions. It means respect for all religions and human beings including non-believers. I am talking to you not as a Tibetan or a Buddhist but as a human being having a friendly discussion and sharing my experiences on the benefits of cultivating basic human values."
In a lecture on "A Good Heart - The key to Health and Happiness" the Dalai Lama emphasises that cultivating secular ethics - which he said has nothing to do with religion - benefits all human beings. He said strengthening inner values of warm-heartedness and compassion benefits both believers and non-believers in leading a happy and meaningful life. He said, "Love and compassion attracts, hatred and anger repels. [...] Peace does not mean absence of conflicts. Differences will always be there. Peace means solving these differences through peaceful means; through dialogue, education, knowledge; through humane ways," the Dalai Lama said amidst a thunderous applause.
Terry Sanderson, vice president of the National Secular Society, said: "It is not often that we can raise a cheer for a religious leader, but the Dalai Lama is sensible to say that a universal ethic is better than one based on religion. Secularism asks us to keep our religion to ourselves, which enables us as human beings to share what unites us rather than what divides us."”
National Secular Society, National Secular Society (2006)
4.4. S. Bruce Defends Secularisation Theory (1996)
Steve Bruce (1996)34 looks at the major comments made by those who do not believe that increasing secularisation is causing a decline in religious belief. "Despite the fuss made by a few sociologists keen to challenge the secularisation thesis, that consensus is very clear: our medieval past was considerably more religious than our modern present.". He looks at the assertion that although modern Church membership is plummeting "religious belief" is still just as strong and refutes it by showing the relevant stats, sociology and history.
The "trend is clear. Those marks of an enduring interest in religion that persist outside the churches are themselves becoming weaker and more rare. If one wants to call those residues 'implicit religion', then one has to recognize that the implicit is decaying in the same way as the explicit. It is not a compensating alternative".
He continues: "Secondly, it should be no surprise that, though there are more avowed atheists than there were twenty years ago, they remain rare. Self-conscious atheism and agnosticism are features of religious cultures and were at their height in the Victorian era. They are postures adopted in a world where people are keenly interested in religion".
5. SeculariSation, or SeculariZation?
In English, we can use either -ise or -ize. Although in American secularization is exclusively spelt with a 'z', in English we use both.
“In English there is no conflict between words that end in ize or ization versus those that end in ise or isation. The -ize spelling is the original British English ending and predates -ise by up to hundreds of years. Nowadays it is called Oxford Spelling and is used extensively by Oxford University Press and the OED. Cambridge University Press have the opposite stance and consider -ise to be the norm. Historically, English has seen both variants used in abundance. In American, the "ize" ending is proscribed however in standard English. neither one is incorrect.”
"isation and ise, versus ization and ize" by Vexen Crabtree (1999)
Bryan Wilson (British, the intellectual father of secularisation theory) used the -z spelling throughout his "Religion in Secular Society" (1966) and other writings. Although his obituary in The Guardian (2004 Nov 02) consistently spelt it secularisation with an s. So, the choice is yours!
6. Civil 'Religion' and Secularisation
Civil religion describes a form of religious nationalism; sometimes it is clearly designed in order to control the people, but sometimes it is a genuine development amongst the citizenry. It is often described in terms other than religion, but, many sociologists have noted the similarity to religion, both in terms of ritual and behaviour, and expressed emotions and justification for its existence. In his mystical concentration on the concept of the 'sacred', Richard K. Fenn explains in his chapter on Catherine Bell that as organized religion disappears, civil practices become even freer to develop:
“The more that religion is unable to control the sacred, the more the sacred may thrive in a wide range of ritualized forms and activities. Bell (1997: 201) is very clear that ritualized forms of the sacred may flourish in a society that is secular, in the sense that the sacred is no longer dominated, defined, or integrated by any particular set of religious beliefs or practices. 'The more widely shared rituals will be only vaguely religious, giving rise to a vast body of 'civic' rituals that include pledging, allegiance to the flag... [...] this type of secular society is also likely to emphasize moral-ethical commands over religious duties, even within the different religious subgroups, in part because moral-ethical injunctions are sufficiently abstract, universal ...' ”
"Key Thinkers in the Sociology of Religion"
Richard K. Fenn (2009) [Book Review]35
Most activist secular groups tend to emerge from anti-religious groups, which creates a skewed battlefield where it appears that secularists oppose religion in general, when this isn't necessarily the case (the Dalai Lama (see above) is a case in point). Hopefully, secularisation can be seen as the only way to guarantee religious freedom in a world where competing religions would otherwise lay claim to the State's education systems, etc, and inhibit freedom. A secular world guarantees maximum religious freedom, free of public religious coercion.
Current edition: 2008 Nov 30
Last Modified: 2016 Oct 19
Second edition 2006 Aug 04
Originally published 2002 Aug 23
Parent page: Human Religions
Definitions of Secularisation Theory: Why is Religion Declining?
All #tags used on this page - click for more:
References: (What's this?)
The Economist. Published by The Economist Group, Ltd. A weekly newspaper in magazine format, famed for its accuracy, wide scope and intelligent content. See vexen.co.uk/references.html#Economist for some commentary on this source..
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Bowman, Herbert & Mumm
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(2009) Key Thinkers in the Sociology of Religion. Paperback book. Published by Continuum International Publishing Group, London, UK. A look at what 11 sociologists of religion think of "the sacred". Be warned that Fenn's book contains one chapter on each sociologist of religion but that his own mystical and specific take on 'the sacred' is heavily intermingled with his commentary - see the book review for a proper description. Book Review.
(2009) Religiosity. gallup.com/poll/142727/.... The survey question was "Is religion an important part of your daily life?" and results are charted for those who said "yes". 1000 adults were polled in each of 114 countries.
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(2011) The Sociology of the Clergy. This essay is chapter 32 of "The Oxford Handbook of The Sociology of Religion" by Peter B. Clarke (2011) (pages p581-596).
IHEU. International Humanist and Ethical Union.
(2012) Freedom of Thought. A copy can be found on iheu.org/...Freedom of Thought 2012.pdf, accessed 2013 Oct 28.
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(1902) The Varieties of Religious Experience. Paperback book. Subtitled: "A Study in Human Nature". 5th (1971 fifth edition) edition. Originally published 1960. From the Gifford Lectures delivered at Edinburgh 1901-1902. Quotes also obtained from Amazon digital Kindle 2015 Xist Publishing edition. Book Review.
Lynn, Harvey & Nyborg
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(2002, Ed.) Global Religious Movements in Regional Context. Published by Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Aldershot, UK, in association with The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. This was a religious studies textbook in the AD317 OU course.
- "Handbook of Denominations" published by the National Council of Churches. I did not record what edition contained this quote; I had obtained it by 2002 Aug.^
- The Encyclical Letter published by the Roman Catholic Church dated 1864 Dec 08 was a reaction against tolerance for other religons and against the rising power of democracy, which was threatening the RCC's ability to enforce its doctrine in the countries of Europe. "It was drawn up by learned ecclesiastics, and subsequently debated at the Congregation of the Holy Office, then forwarded to prelates, and finally gone over by the pope and cardinals". Commentary and quotes obtained from Draper (1881) p332-333.^
- Added to this page on 2013 Jun 10.^
- Zuckerman, P. (2007). Atheism: contemporary numbers and patterns. In M.Martin (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In "Average intelligence predicts atheism rates across 137 nations" by Lynn et al. (2009).^
- Gallup (2009) .^
- IHEU (2012) p9. Added to this page on 2014 Jul 25.^
- "Eurobarometer 225: Social values, Science & Technology". Published by Eurostat (2005) for the European Commission. Accessed 2008 Sep 01.^
- National Secular Society newsletter (2007 Mar 02), which included commentary on a Eurostat (2007) publication.^
- Wenzel (2011) p185.^
- Dobbelaere (2011) p611. Added to this page on 2016 Aug 01.^
- Added to this page on 2013 Jun 10. As discovered by vertical sociological investigation (D'Antonio et al. 2007).^
- Hoge (2011) p592. Added to this page on 2013 Jun 10.^
- Wolffe (2002) p79. Source for Costa Rice and Chile stats. Added to this page on 2011 Jun 19.^
- Beckerlegge (2001) p87-88.^
- Wilson (1966) p14.^
- Geertz, Clifford (1968) "Islam Observed". The Terry Luctures. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. In "Key Thinkers in the Sociology of Religion" by Richard K. Fenn (2009) [Book Review] chapter "Clifford Geertz" p191-2. Added to this page on 2012 Nov 14.^
- Fenn (2009) chapter "Clifford Geertz" p191-2. Added to this page on 2012 Nov 14.^
- Dobbelaere (2011) p611, citing Pace (1998) who demonstrates this change began in the late nineteenth century and which gained momentum in the 1950s. The secularist revolutions of Ataturk and the Ba'th party in Syria and Iraq unfortunately led to severe long-lasting fundamentalist resurgences. Added to this page on 2016 Aug 01.^
- Wenzel (2011) p172. Added to this page on 2016 Aug 02.^
- Stark (1999).^
- For example see "Public Religions in the Modern World" by the American sociologist Jose Casanova (1994). He argues that secularization is a unique aspect of western Europe. Published by Chicago University Press. In "Religion Today: Tradition, Modernity and Change: Course Introduction" by Bowman, Herbert & Mumm (2009) p75.^
- The Economist (2007 Nov 03) insert "A special report on religion and public life" p4.^
- Partridge (2004) on p359 of his book on new religious movements says "the weight of evidence seems to favour the general thesis that religion is so psychologically and socially bound up with the human condition that it is unlikely ever to disappear". Added to this page on 2015 Jan 15.^
- Bowman, Herbert & Mumm (2009) p73.^
- Added to this page on 2012 Dec 15. Paragraph on New Religious Movements added.^
- Bowman, Herbert & Mumm (2009) p70-80. References p267 of Stark, R. (1999) "Secularization R.I.P.", Sociology of Religion, vol.60, no.3, pp.249-73.^
- The Economist (2009 Feb 07) article "Evolution: Unfinished business".^
- Heffner (2011) . Added to this page on 2016 Oct 19.^
- Dobbelaere (2011) p612, citing Norris & Inglehart (2004). Added to this page on 2016 Aug 25.^
- Giddens (1997) p441.^
- James (1902) p468-469.^
- Momen (1999) chapter 19 "Religion in the Modern World" p480.^
- Partridge (2004) p358.^
- Bruce (1996) p56-58.^
- Fenn (2009) Chapter "Catherine Bell" p218. Added to this page on 2013 Jun 10.^
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