Globalization Essay Ideas For 4th

Our world is shrinking every day – how do you like it?

From the telegraph to the internet, from rails to jumbo jets, advances in communication and travel technology have connected people across the globe. Some of these connections have promoted prosperity while others have been problematic. For better or worse, globalization is a complex topic, and if you’re writing a pros and cons essay about it, you’ll want to make sure you find good sources to back up your ideas.

In this blog post, I’ll provide 20globalization articles to help you get started.

But before we dive in, let’s focus on some key considerations for writing about this topic.

Much Ado About a Complex Issue

So you want to write about globalization? Writing about complex issues means that you have to go the extra mile in order to write an equally complex and well-crafted essay. A pros and cons essay requires an argumentative approach, so it’s a good idea to first know the purpose behind your approach before hammering out a first draft.

The Argumentative/Research Approach:

Think about a part of globalization that interests you. What major question do you have about this part of the topic? Trying to answer this question is where you start your research. The answer that you come up with and will support throughout the essay will be your thesis.

Otherwise, you may already have some ideas about the topic and want to persuade your audience to accept a claim you make. This claim (or thesis) also needs to be supported by evidence, which is why you’ll still need to research the topic.

Pro or Con?

Time to apply your critical thinking skills! While your paper will focus on both the pro and con sides of the globalization debate, just make sure you avoid the pitfalls of being too simplistic or vague.

For example, if you approach one of the problems with globalization, you don’t want to just write, “Globalization is bad.” Instead, you want your thesis to dig into a specific part of globalization’s context. A better thesis might look like this:

Increased globalization has created a large outsourcing market that attracts U.S. companies with the prospect of cheap labor, but in turn, quality industrial production has vastly declined due to lax regulations.

See how specific that is? Give your audience both a specific problem and the reason that problem is significant, and you’ll be off to a great start!

Quality Control

Knowing your approach and having a solid thesis are both important for a strong start, but you also need to support your essay with quality sources to help you get to the finish line. Depending on your instructor’s expectations, you can use both popular and scholarly sources. Whatever the case, you want to make sure your research is credible. If you need some extra help, try applying the CRAAP test to each of your sources before you decide to use them.

The Articles

Okay – no more messing around! Following are 20globalization articles to help you get started in supporting your pros and cons essay. I’ve organized these into three categories for you: “Pro,” “Neutral,” and “Anti.” You can use neutral articles for either a “pro” or “con” approach because they are more informative and address both globalization’s positive and negative effects.

I’ve also included an MLA citation for each article. If you use it, make sure to change the access date! Or, if your assignment requires it, you might want to use an APA citation instead.

5 Pro-Globalization Articles

Pro-Globalization Article 1:“What Globalization Really Means”

This article discusses how Peter Drucker’s claims about globalization’s evolution have become reality. Its author, Rick Wartzman, looks at how major global corporations have improved economic status and stability for other countries while promoting an overall stronger globalized market. This article specifically covers the rise of Bo Andersson in the global auto industry and how his involvement has led to greater manufacturing accountability and profits.

MLA Citation  

Wartzman, Rick. “What Globalization Really Means” Time, Inc., 23 Oct. 2013. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 2:“Global flows in a digital age”

This article highlights a research study conducted by economists at the McKinsey Global Institute. The research favors globalization’s contribution to the world GDP and argues why it is necessary to maintain this trend. There is useful chart detailing various countries’ global flows and a link to the full 180-page research study in the article.

MLA Citation

Manyika, James, et al. “Global Flows in a Digital Age.” McKinsey & Company, Apr. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 3:“Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared”

Ben Wildavsky, a senior scholar in Research and Policy at the Kauffman Foundation, talks about why academic globalization should be encouraged, particularly because an increased global intelligence is beneficial for the entire world. Wildavsky balances his argument by first addressing his audience’s concerns about import education and export talent issues, so this article will be useful if you’re looking to provide solid pathos to your paper.

MLA Citation

Wildavsky, Ben. “Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared.” The Brookings Institution, 15 Jan. 2010. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 4:“The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the ‘serious life’”

Richard Giulianotti and Roland Robertson provide interesting and unique insights about how globalization, particularly in sports, can promote a greater “global democracy.” While much of this article focuses on the positive cultural impacts of globalization, rather than economic ones, the information favors global expansion and builds a strong case that is aptly reinforced with sound resources.

MLA Citation

Giulianotti, Richard, and Roland Roberts. “The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the ‘serious life’.” The British Journal of Sociology 55.4 (2004): 545-568. Web. 28 May 2015.

Pro-Globalization Article 5:“Globalization and Wealth Creation in Developing Countries”

This article offers a solid overview of how globalization has increased income in certain countries through industrialization and trade. While the author, Nigel Hogan, recognizes that there are issues in wealth equality for different countries, he puts up a sound argument backed by strong sources that globalization can be seen as a force of economic good.

MLA Citation

Hogan, Nigel. “Globalization and Wealth Creation in Developing Countries.” E-International Relations Students. E-International Relations, 9 June 2012. Web. 28 May 2015.

5 Neutral Globalization Articles

Neutral Globalization Article 1:“The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly Side Of Globalization”

Forbes contributor, Panos Mourdoukoutas, offers an interesting introduction to the ups and downs of globalization’s economic effects. The article is organized into concise paragraphs that break down the benefits and problems associated with globalization and the world market, and Mourdoukoutas also projects what happens when the issues with globalization become prevalent.

MLA Citation

Mourdoukoutas, Panos. “The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly Side Of Globalization.” Forbes. LLC., 13 Apr. 2015. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral Globalization Article 2:“Globalization: Progress Or Profiteering?”

Financial specialist, Lisa Smith, takes an informative approach to how globalization affects different social classes in both host and outsource countries. He provides useful comprehensive links to definitions of key terms such as international trade and outsourcing. There are also links to other articles that deal with similar topics.

MLA Citation

Smith, Lisa. “Globalization: Progress Or Profiteering?” Investopedia. Investopedia, LLC., 28 Jan. 2007. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral Globalization Article 3:“Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?”

This scholarly article does a great job of scrutinizing both sides of the globalization argument. It analyzes and makes strong conclusions about data, particularly regarding the supposed rise and fall of world poverty rates. Whether you’re for or against any aspect of globalization, this article can help you examine the data more closely and better understand the margin of error therein.

MLA Citation

Wade, Robert Hunter. “Is Globalization Reducing Poverty and Inequality?” World Development 32.4 (2004): 567–589. ScienceDirect. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral-Globalization Article 4:“The Issue of Globalization – An Overview”

In this Congressional Research Service report, Gary J. Wells provides a thorough introduction to globalization that is purely informative but has useful information for either side of the argument. Wells discusses globalization’s accomplishments as well as its failures, providing sound evidence and many footnotes that can be useful for your own research.

MLA Citation

Wells, Gary J. “The Issue of Globalization — An Overview.” Congressional Research Service Reports and Issue Briefs. Cornell U. ILR School, 1 May 2001. Web. 28 May 2015.

Neutral-Globalization Article 5:“Rethinking Global Economic and Social Governance”

Published by the The Journal of Globalization and Development, this article provides interesting insight into globalization that  recognizes it as being necessary but ultimately problematic. Instead of merely taking a “pro-con” approach, the author, Jose Antonio Ocampo, focuses on how improving globalization can provide an effective approach to worldwide governance. He also uses many useful sources that you may want to explore.

MLA Citation

Ocampo, Jose Antonio. “Rethinking Global Economic and Social Governance.” Journal of Globalization and Development 1.1 (2010): 1-29. The Berkeley Electronic Press. Web. 28 May 2015.

5 Anti-Globalization Articles

Anti-Globalization Article 1:“Globalization and Unemployment”

Foreign Affairs contributor, Michael Spence, covers how integrating markets negatively affects U.S. employment rates. While this article is useful for your stance against globalization, it provides a fair assessment of the issue as well. Spence also considers measures that the U.S. could apply to make globalization more sustainable, which is great for compromising with your audience in your argument.

MLA Citation

Spence, Michael. “Globalization and Unemployment.” Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations, Inc., 02 June 2011. Web. 28 May 2015.

Anti-Globalization Article 2:“The Dark Side of Globalization: Why Seattle’s 1999 Protesters Were Right”

Noah Smith, an assistant professor of finance at Stony Brook University, writes about the problems of the World Trade Organization’s globalization efforts. Smith covers the historical aspect of market globalization from 1999 to the present. The article is thorough and avoids bias by noting that while globalization has improved worldwide equality and poverty issues, the WTO could have implemented the process much more efficiently and ethically.

MLA Citation

Smith, Noah. “The Dark Side of Globalization: Why Seattle’s 1999 Protesters Were Right.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 06 Jan. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.

Anti-Globalization Article 3:“Globalization Is in Retreat? Not So Fast”

In this New York Times article, economic writer Eduardo Porter discusses the problems of globalization and why these may cause a decline in global as opposed to regional business. That said, Porter also maintains a well-balanced argument by offering research that suggests globalization will continue to remain valid as countries have become dependent on this system. He cites important economic research and U.N. data that you may want to use as well.

MLA Citation

Porter, Eduardo. “Globalization Is in Retreat? Not So Fast.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015.

Anti-Globalization Article 4:“Academic Integrity, Remix Culture, Globalization: A Canadian Case Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism”

This scholarly article offers a unique approach to globalization because it analyzes the issue from an educational, rather than an economic, perspective. The author, Tyler Evans-Tokaryk, a Writing Specialist and Senior Lecturer at University of Toronto Mississauga, provides a comprehensive study of global plagiarism perspectives and how Western universities must evolve in their approach to the issue. Tokaryk also includes a full bibliography of his sources that could be useful for your own research.

MLA Citation

Evans-Tokaryk, Tyler. “Academic integrity, remix culture, globalization: A Canadian case study of student and faculty perceptions of plagiarism.” Across the Disciplines 11.2 (2014): 24 Nov. 2014. Web. 28 May 2015

Anti-Globalization Article 5:“Behind The Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism”

In this scholarly article, Audrey Kurth Cronin discusses that with increased globalization comes increased global terrorism. While much of this article focuses on the negative aspect of terrorist actions across the world and the ease of access terrorists now possess through media and travel outlets, Cronin effectively structures her argument toward a solution. She recognizes that globalization has its merits, but also notes that major problems in globalization must be solved. Many credible sources appear in the footnotes, so be sure to check those out!

MLA Citation

Cronin, Audrey Kurth. “Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism.” International Security 27.3 (2003): 30-58. Web. 28 May 2015.

The Breakdown

I’ve given you a head-start with these articles, but there are plenty out there for you to discover! Many of these will be great for your research, but remember to use the CRAAP test if you’re unsure about an article’s quality.

Articles like those above can be found by using Google. But if you’re a university student, you probably have access to tons of great scholarly databases, such as JSTOR or ProjectMuse, through your school. Get your tuition-money’s worth and check these out! If you’re not familiar with online databases, seek help from your friendly university librarian.

Also read 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper.

Once you’ve collected enough articles to support your ideas about the pros and cons of globalization, you’ll be ready to outline and start that first essay draft. Just be sure that you include the following in your paper:

Still wondering what a pros and cons essay looks like? Here are some examples from our sample essay database:

All right, now you’re ready to start writing your paper – go for it! Kibin will be standing by to help you proofread it when you’ve finished.

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For other uses, see Globalization (disambiguation).

Globalisation (or globalization, American spelling) is the trend of increasing interaction between people on a worldwide scale due to advances in transportation and communication technology, nominally beginning with the steamship and the telegraph in the early to mid-1800s. With increased interactions between nation-states and individuals came the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration that has social and cultural aspects, but conflicts and diplomacy are also large parts of the history of globalization.

Economically, globalization involves goods and services, and the economic resources of capital, technology, and data.[1][2] The steam locomotive, steamship, jet engine, and container ships are some of the advances in the means of transport while the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet and mobile phones show development in telecommunications infrastructure. All of these improvements have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.[3][4][5]

Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the EuropeanAge of Discovery and voyages to the New World, some even to the third millennium BC.[6][7] Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s.[8] In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. The term globalization is recent, only establishing its current meaning in the 1970s.[9]

In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge.[10] Further, environmental challenges such as global warming, cross-boundary water,air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization.[11] Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Academic literature commonly subdivides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization, and political globalization.[12]

Etymology and usage[edit]

The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems.[13] One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education.[14]Charles Taze Russell (of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society) coined a related term, corporate giants, in 1897[15] to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. The term 'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, and in other senses since at least as early as 1944.[16] Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations. Its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward.[17][18] Due to the complexity of the concept, various research projects, articles, and discussions often stay focused on a single aspect of globalization.[19]

SociologistsMartin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society."[1] In The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens writes: "Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa."[20] In 1992, Roland Robertson, professor of sociology at the University of Aberdeen and an early writer in the field, described globalization as "the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole."[21]

In Global Transformations, David Held and his co-writers state:

Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration. ... Globalization can be on a continuum with the local, national and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis; at the other end lie social and economic relations and networks which crystallize on the wider scale of regional and global interactions. Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term. ... A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity (stretching), intensity, velocity and impact.[22]

Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the 2014 DHL Global Connectiveness Index.[23]

Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization, states that globalization:

is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world.[24]

Paul James defines globalization with a more direct and historically contextualized emphasis:

Globalization is the extension of social relations across world-space, defining that world-space in terms of the historically variable ways that it has been practiced and socially understood through changing world-time.[25]

Manfred Steger, professor of global studies and research leader in the Global Cities Institute at RMIT University, identifies four main empirical dimensions of globalization: economic, political, cultural, and ecological. A fifth dimension—the ideological—cutting across the other four. The ideological dimension, according to Steger, is filled with a range of norms, claims, beliefs, and narratives about the phenomenon itself.[26]

James and Steger stated that the concept of globalization "emerged from the intersection of four interrelated sets of 'communities of practice' (Wenger, 1998): academics, journalists, publishers/editors, and librarians."[9]:424 They note the term was used "in education to describe the global life of the mind"; in international relations to describe the extension of the European Common Market; and in journalism to describe how the "American Negro and his problem are taking on a global significance".[9] They have also argued that four different forms of globalization can be distinguished that complement and cut across the solely empirical dimensions.[25][27] According to James, the oldest dominant form of globalization is embodied globalization, the movement of people. A second form is agency-extended globalization, the circulation of agents of different institutions, organizations, and polities, including imperial agents. Object-extended globalization, a third form, is the movement of commodities and other objects of exchange. He calls the transmission of ideas, images, knowledge, and information across world-space disembodied globalization, maintaining that it is currently the dominant form of globalization. James holds that this series of distinctions allows for an understanding of how, today, the most embodied forms of globalization such as the movement of refugees and migrants are increasingly restricted, while the most disembodied forms such as the circulation of financial instruments and codes are the most deregulated.[28]

The journalist Thomas L. Friedman popularized the term "flat world", arguing that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces had permanently changed the world, for better and worse. He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow.[29]

Economist Takis Fotopoulos defined "economic globalization" as the opening and deregulation of commodity, capital, and labor markets that led toward present neoliberal globalization. He used "political globalization" to refer to the emergence of a transnational élite and a phasing out of the nation-state. Meanwhile, he used "cultural globalization" to reference the worldwide homogenization of culture. Other of his usages included "ideological globalization", "technological globalization", and "social globalization".[30]

Lechner and Boli (2012) define globalization as more people across large distances becoming connected in more and different ways.[31]

Globophobia is used to refer to the fear of globalization, though it can also mean the fear of balloons.[32][33][34]


Main article: History of globalization

See also: Timeline of international trade

There are both distal and proximate causes which can be traced in the historical factors affecting globalization. Large-scale globalization began in the 19th century.[35]


Main article: Archaic globalization

Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the 1600s. This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels.[36]

In this schema, three main prerequisites are posited for globalization to occur. The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the East.[36] Without the spread of traditional ideas from the East, Western globalization would not have emerged the way it did. The second is distance. The interactions of states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, North Africa, the Middle East, and certain parts of Europe.[36] With early globalization, it was difficult for states to interact with others that were not within a close proximity. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others' existence and thus another phase of globalization can occur. The third has to do with inter-dependency, stability, and regularity. If a state is not dependent on another, then there is no way for either state to be mutually affected by the other. This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either, globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to work. This is one of the arguments surrounding the idea of early globalization. It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today.[36]

Also posited is a "multi-polar" nature to archaic globalization, which involved the active participation of non-Europeans. Because it predated the Great Divergence of the nineteenth century, where Western Europe pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic output, archaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by Europe but also by other economically developed Old World centers such as Gujarat, Bengal, coastal China, and Japan.[37]

The German historical economist and sociologist Andre Gunder Frank argues that a form of globalization began with the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium B.C.E. This archaic globalization existed during the Hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers enveloped the axis of Greek culture that reached from India to Spain, including Alexandria and the other Alexandrine cities. Early on, the geographic position of Greece and the necessity of importing wheat forced the Greeks to engage in maritime trade. Trade in ancient Greece was largely unrestricted: the state controlled only the supply of grain.[6]

Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of civilizations from China, Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe, and Arabia, opening long-distance political and economic interactions between them.[38] Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, common goods such as salt and sugar were traded as well; and religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies, as well as diseases, also traveled along the Silk Routes. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilizations along its network.[39] The movement of people, such as refugees, artists, craftsmen, missionaries, robbers, and envoys, resulted in the exchange of religions, art, languages, and new technologies.[40]

Early modern[edit]

Main article: Proto-globalization

"Early modern-" or "proto-globalization" covers a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between 1600 and 1800. The concept of "proto-globalization" was first introduced by historiansA. G. Hopkins and Christopher Bayly. The term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of high "modern globalization" in the late 19th century.[41] This phase of globalization was characterized by the rise of maritime European empires, in the 16th and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese and Spanish Empires, and later the Dutch and British Empires. In the 17th century, world trade developed further when chartered companies like the British East India Company (founded in 1600) and the Dutch East India Company (founded in 1602, often described as the first multinational corporation in which stock was offered) were established.[42]

Early modern globalization is distinguished from modern globalization on the basis of expansionism, the method of managing global trade, and the level of information exchange. The period is marked by such trade arrangements as the East India Company, the shift of hegemony to Western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations such as the Thirty Years' War, and the rise of newfound commodities—most particularly slave trade. The Triangular Trade made it possible for Europe to take advantage of resources within the Western Hemisphere. The transfer of animal stocks, plant crops, and epidemic diseases associated with Alfred W. Crosby's concept of the Columbian Exchange also played a central role in this process. European, Muslim, Indian, Southeast Asian, and Chinese merchants were all involved in early modern trade and communications, particularly in the Indian Ocean region.


According to economic historians Kevin H. O'Rourke, Leandro Prados de la Escosura, and Guillaume Daudin, several factors promoted globalization in the period 1815-1870[43]:

  • The conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars brought in an era of relative peace in Europe.
  • Innovations in transportation technology reduced trade costs substantially.
  • New industrial military technologies increased the power of European states and the United States, and allowed these powers to forcibly open up markets across the world and extend their empires.
  • A gradual move towards greater liberalization in European countries.

During the 19th century, globalization approached its form as a direct result of the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization allowed standardized production of household items using economies of scale while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities. In the 19th century, steamships reduced the cost of international transport significantly and railroads made inland transportation cheaper. The transport revolution occurred some time between 1820 and 1850.[35] More nations embraced international trade.[35] Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism such as in Africa and Asia. The invention of shipping containers in 1956 helped advance the globalization of commerce.[44][45]

After World War II, work by politicians led to the agreements of the Bretton Woods Conference, in which major governments laid down the framework for international monetary policy, commerce, and finance, and the founding of several international institutions intended to facilitate economic growth by lowering trade barriers. Initially, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) led to a series of agreements to remove trade restrictions. GATT's successor was the World Trade Organization (WTO), which provided a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements and a dispute resolution process. Exports nearly doubled from 8.5% of total gross world product in 1970 to 16.2% in 2001.[46] The approach of using global agreements to advance trade stumbled with the failure of the Doha Development Round of trade negotiation. Many countries then shifted to bilateral or smaller multilateral agreements, such as the 2011 South Korea–United States Free Trade Agreement.

Since the 1970s, aviation has become increasingly affordable to middle classes in developed countries. Open skies policies and low-cost carriers have helped to bring competition to the market. In the 1990s, the growth of low-cost communication networks cut the cost of communicating between different countries. More work can be performed using a computer without regard to location. This included accounting, software development, and engineering design.

Student exchange programs became popular after World War II, and are intended to increase the participants' understanding and tolerance of other cultures, as well as improving their language skills and broadening their social horizons. Between 1963 and 2006 the number of students studying in a foreign country increased 9 times.[47]

In the late 19th and early 20th century, the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. This slowed down from the 1910s onward due to the World Wars and the Cold War,[48] but picked up again in the 1980s and 1990s.[49] The revolutions of 1989 and subsequent liberalization in many parts of the world resulted in a significant expansion of global interconnectedness. The migration and movement of people can also be highlighted as a prominent feature of the globalization process. In the period between 1965 and 1990, the proportion of the labor force migrating approximately doubled. Most migration occurred between the developing countries and least developed countries (LDCs).[50] As economic integration intensified workers moved to areas with higher wages and most of the developing world oriented toward the international market economy. The collapse of the Soviet Union not only ended the Cold War's division of the world- it also left the United States its sole policeman and an unfettered advocate of free market. It also resulted in the growing prominence of attention focused on the movement of diseases, the proliferation of popular culture and consumer values, the growing prominence of international institutions like the UN, and concerted international action on such issues as the environment and human rights.[51] Other developments as dramatic were the Internet has become influential in connecting people across the world. As of June 2012[update], more than 2.4 billion people—over a third of the world's human population—have used the services of the Internet.[52][53] Growth of globalization has never been smooth. One influential event was the late 2000s recession, which was associated with lower growth (in areas such as cross-border phone calls and Skype usage) or even temporarily negative growth (in areas such as trade) of global interconnectedness.[54][55] The DHL Global Connectedness Index studies four main types of cross-border flow: trade (in both goods and services), information, people (including tourists, students, and migrants), and capital. It shows that the depth of global integration fell by about one-tenth after 2008, but by 2013 had recovered well above its pre-crash peak.[23][54] The report also found a shift of economic activity to emerging economies.[23]

Globalized society offers a complex web of forces and factors that bring people, cultures, markets, beliefs, and practices into increasingly greater proximity to one another.[56]

Economic globalization[edit]

Main article: Economic globalization

Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital.[58] Whereas the globalization of business is centered around the diminution of international trade regulations as well as tariffs, taxes, and other impediments that suppresses global trade, economic globalization is the process of increasing economic integration between countries, leading to the emergence of a global marketplace or a single world market.[59] Depending on the paradigm, economic globalization can be viewed as either a positive or a negative phenomenon. Economic globalization comprises: Globalization of production; which refers to the obtention of goods and services from a particular source from different locations around the globe to benefit from difference in cost and quality.Likewise, it also comprises globalization of markets; which is defined as the union of different and separate markets into a massive global marketplace. Economic globalization also includes[60] competition, technology, and corporations and industries.[58]

Current globalization trends can be largely accounted for by developed economies integrating with less developed economies by means of foreign direct investment, the reduction of trade barriers as well as other economic reforms, and, in many cases, immigration.

International standards have made trade in goods and services more efficient. An example of such standard is the intermodal container. Containerization dramatically reduced transport of its costs, supported the post-war boom in international trade, and was a major element in globalization.[44]International Organization for Standardization is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise[61] is an organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in one or more countries other than their home country.[62] It can also be referred as an international corporation, a transnational corporation, or a stateless corporation.[63]

A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA). Such agreements involve cooperation between at least two countries to reduce trade barriers – import quotas and tariffs – and to increase trade of goods and services with each other.[64] If people are also free to move between the countries, in addition to a free-trade agreement, it would also be considered an open border. Arguably the most significant free-trade area in the world is the European Union, a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are primarily located in Europe. The EU has developed European Single Market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market,[65]

Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximise efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives.

Global trade in services is also significant. For example, in India, business process outsourcing has been described as the "primary engine of the country's development over the next few decades, contributing broadly to GDP growth, employment growth, and poverty alleviation".[66][67]

William I. Robinson's theoretical approach to globalization is a critique of Wallerstein's World Systems Theory. He believes that the global capital experienced today is due to a new and distinct form of globalization which began in the 1980s. Robinson argues not only are economic activities expanded across national boundaries but also there is a transnational fragmentation of these activities.[68] One important aspect of Robinson's globalization theory is that production of goods are increasingly global. This means that one pair of shoes can be produced by six different countries, each contributing to a part of the production process.

Cultural globalization[edit]

Main article: Cultural globalization

Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings, and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations.[69] This process is marked by the common consumption of cultures that have been diffused by the Internet, popular culture media, and international travel. This has added to processes of commodity exchange and colonization which have a longer history of carrying cultural meaning around the globe. The circulation of cultures enables individuals to partake in extended social relations that cross national and regional borders. The creation and expansion of such social relations is not merely observed on a material level. Cultural globalization involves the formation of shared norms and knowledge with which people associate their individual and collective cultural identities. It brings increasing interconnectedness among different populations and cultures.[70]

Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures. Intercultural communication is a related field of study.

Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages etc. Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural contacts, but may be accompanied by a decrease in the uniqueness of once-isolated communities. For example, sushi is available in Germany as well as Japan, but Euro-Disney outdraws the city of Paris, potentially reducing demand for "authentic" French pastry.[71][72][73] Globalization's contribution to the alienation of individuals from their traditions may be modest compared to the impact of modernity itself, as alleged by existentialists such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus. Globalization has expanded recreational opportunities by spreading pop culture, particularly via the Internet and satellite television.

Religions were among the earliest cultural elements to globalize, being spread by force, migration, evangelists, imperialists, and traders. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and more recently sects such as Mormonism are among those religions which have taken root and influenced endemic cultures in places far from their origins.[74]

Globalization has strongly influenced sports.[75] For example, the modern Olympic Games has athletes from more than 200 nations participating in a variety of competitions.[76] The FIFA World Cup is the most widely viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding even the Olympic Games; a ninth of the entire population of the planet watched the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final.[77][78][79][80]

The term globalization implies transformation. Cultural practices including traditional music can be lost or turned into a fusion of traditions. Globalization can trigger a state of emergency for the preservation of musical heritage. Archivists may attempt to collect, record, or transcribe repertoires before melodies are assimilated or modified, while local musicians may struggle for authenticity and to preserve local musical traditions. Globalization can lead performers to discard traditional instruments. Fusion genres can become interesting fields of analysis.[81]

Music has an important role in economic and cultural development during globalization. Music genres such as jazz and reggae began locally and later became international phenomena. Globalization gave support to the world music phenomenon by allowing music from developing countries to reach broader audiences.[82] Though the term "World Music" was originally intended for ethnic-specific music, globalization is now expanding its scope such that the term often includes hybrid subgenres such as "world fusion", "global fusion", "ethnic fusion",[83] and worldbeat.[84][85]

Bourdieu claimed that the perception of consumption can be seen as self-identification and the formation of identity. Musically, this translates into each individual having their own musical identity based on likes and tastes. These likes and tastes are greatly influenced by culture, as this is the most basic cause for a person's wants and behavior. The concept of one's own culture is now in a period of change due to globalization. Also, globalization has increased the interdependency of political, personal, cultural, and economic factors.[87]

A 2005 UNESCO report[88] showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent from Eastern Asia, but that Western countries are still the main exporters of cultural goods. In 2002, China was the third largest exporter of cultural goods, after the UK and US. Between 1994 and 2002, both North America's and the European Union's shares of cultural exports declined while Asia's cultural exports grew to surpass North America. Related factors are the fact that Asia's population and area are several times that of North America. Americanization is related to a period of high political American clout and of significant growth of America's shops, markets and objects being brought into other countries.

Some critics of globalization argue that it harms the diversity of cultures. As a dominating country's culture is introduced into a receiving country through globalization, it can become a threat to the diversity of local culture. Some argue that globalization may ultimately lead to Westernization or Americanization of culture, where the dominating cultural concepts of economically and politically powerful Western countries spread and cause harm to local cultures.

Globalization is a diverse phenomenon which relates to a multilateral political world and to the increase of cultural objects and markets between countries. The Indian experience particularly reveals the plurality of the impact of cultural globalization.[89]

Transculturalism is defined as "seeing oneself in the other".[90] Transcultural[91] is in turn described as "extending through all human cultures"[91] or "involving, encompassing, or combining elements of more than one culture".[92]

Political globalization[edit]

Main article: Political globalization

In general, globalization may ultimately reduce the importance of nation states. Supranational institutions such as the European Union, the WTO, the G8 or the International Criminal Court replace or extend national functions to facilitate international agreement.[93]

Intergovernmentalism is a term in political science with two meanings. The first refers to a theory of regional integration originally proposed by Stanley Hoffmann; the second treats states and the national government as the primary factors for integration.[94]Multi-level governance is an approach in political science and public administration theory that originated from studies on European integration. Multi-level governance gives expression to the idea that there are many interacting authority structures at work in the emergent global political economy. It illuminates the intimate entanglement between the domestic and international levels of authority.

Some people are citizens of multiple nation-states. Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship or multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.

Increasingly, non-governmental organizations influence public policy across national boundaries, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts.[95] Philanthropic organizations with global missions are also coming to the forefront of humanitarian efforts; charities such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Accion International, the Acumen Fund (now Acumen) and the Echoing Green have combined the business model with philanthropy, giving rise to business organizations such as the Global Philanthropy Group and new associations of philanthropists such as the Global Philanthropy Forum. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation projects include a current multibillion-dollar commitment to funding immunizations in some of the world's more impoverished but rapidly growing countries.[96] The Hudson Institute estimates total private philanthropic flows to developing countries at US$59 billion in 2010.[97]

As a response to globalization, some countries have embraced isolationist policies. For example, the North Korean government makes it very difficult for foreigners to enter the country and strictly monitors their activities when they do. Aid workers are subject to considerable scrutiny and excluded from places and regions the government does not wish them to enter. Citizens cannot freely leave the country.[98][99]

Other dimensions[edit]

Scholars also occasionally discuss other, less common dimensions of globalization, such as environmental globalization (the internationally coordinated practices and regulations, often in the form of international treaties, regarding environmental protection)[100] or military globalization (growth in global extent and scope of security relationships).[101] Those dimensions, however, receive much less attention the three described above, as academic literature commonly subdivides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization and political globalization.[12]

Movement of people[edit]

An essential aspect of globalization is movement of people. As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. For example, travel across the Atlantic ocean used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days.[102] Today, modern aviation has made long-distance transportation quick and affordable.

Tourism is travel for pleasure. The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines, and more accessibleairports have made many types of tourism more affordable. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012.[103] A visa is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter and temporarily remain within, or to leave that country. Some countries – such as those in the Schengen Area – have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists who require a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in 2015.[104][105]

Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.[106][107][108] According to the International Labour Organization, as of 2014 there were an estimated 232 million international migrants in the world (defined as persons outside their country of origin for 12 months or more) and approximately half of them were estimated to be economically active (i.e. being employed or seeking employment).[109] International movement of labor is often seen as important to economic development. For example, freedom of movement for workers in the European Union means that people can move freely between member states to live, work, study or retire in another country.

Globalization is associated with a dramatic rise in international education. More and more students are seeking higher education in foreign countries and many international students now consider overseas study a stepping-stone to permanent residency within a country.[110] The contributions that foreign students make to host nation economies, both culturally and financially has encouraged major players to implement further initiatives to facilitate the arrival and integration of overseas students, including substantial amendments to immigration and visa policies and procedures.[47]

A transnational marriage is a marriage between two people from different countries. A variety of special issues arise in marriages between people from different countries, including those related to citizenship and culture, which add complexity and challenges to these kinds of relationships. In an age of increasing globalization, where a growing number of people have ties to networks of people and places across the globe, rather than to a current geographic location, people are increasingly marrying across national boundaries. Transnational marriage is a by-product of the movement and migration of people.

Movement of information[edit]

See also: Internet

Africa      2%            10%            25%      
Arab States8%26%42%
Asia and Pacific9%23%42%
Commonwealth of
Independent States
a Estimate.
Source: International Telecommunication Union.[111]

Before electronic communications, long-distance communications relied on mail. Speed of global communications was limited by the maximum speed of courier services (especially horses and ships) until the mid-19th century. The electric telegraph was the first method of instant long-distance communication. For example, before the first transatlantic cable, communications between Europe and the Americas took weeks because ships had to carry mail across the ocean. The first transatlantic cable reduced communication time considerably, allowing a message and a response in the same day. Lasting transatlantic telegraph connections were achieved in the 1865–1866. The first wireless telegraphy transmitters were developed in 1895.

The Internet has been instrumental in connecting people across geographical boundaries. For example, Facebook is a social networking service which has more than 1.65 billion monthly active users as of 31 March 2016.[112]

Globalization can be spread by Global journalism which provides massive information and relies on the internet to interact, "makes it into an everyday routine to investigate how people and their actions, practices, problems, life conditions etc. in different parts of the world are interrelated. possible to assume that global threats such as climate change precipitate the further establishment of global journalism."[113]


See also: List of globalization-related indices

One index of globalization is the KOF Index of Globalization, which measures three important dimensions of globalization: economic, social, and political.[114] Another is the

The Silk Road in the 1st century
During the early 19th century the United Kingdom was a global superpower.
U.S. Trade Balance and Trade Policies (1895–2015)
Real GDP, Real Wages and Trade Policy in the U.S. (1947–2014)
Number of countries having a banking crisis in each year since 1800. This is based on This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly[57] which covers only 70 countries. The general upward trend might be attributed to many factors. One of these is a gradual increase in the percent of people who receive money for their labor. The dramatic feature of this graph is the virtual absence of banking crises during the period of the Bretton Woods agreement, 1945 to 1971. This analysis is similar to Figure 10.1 in Reinhart and Rogoff (2009). For more details see the help file for "bankingCrises" in the Ecdat package available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).
Shakira, a Colombian multilingual singer-songwriter, playing outside her home country.

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